Fibre Optics Fundamentals
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Fibre optics is an amazing technology that allows our daily voice, video and data transmissions to occur with ever-increasing quality and lower costs. This 5 module series can be taken as a whole or as individual modules. Each module is available as self-paced online format and each is roughly 60 minutes in duration.
In the first module, you will learn how fibre optics benefit a variety of applications followed by a review of the cabling process and variations in cable. Next, will be a discussion of fibre optic splicing and fibre optic connectors. Finally, OTDR theory and operation will be reviewed.
In the second module, we examine the OTDR's key role which is the acceptance testing of optical fibers and cables. This is followed by a review of the key task for users--identifying and measuring splices in the optical cable span. Next we examine reflectance, which is recognized today as a limitation of high-performance systems. This is followed by a review of testing which includes a focus on the final measurements necessary after a single-mode fiber span has been installed, spliced and terminated. Next, we review short-distance and LAN applications, as well as the OTDR's role to inspect, measure, and verify span performance.
In the third module we begin with an introduction to fiber testing including an overview of the available equipment. This is followed by a discussion of selecting test equipment and understanding how elements such as instrument resolution, dynamic range, launch conditions and calibration effect the final measurement. Next we examine the need for connector cleanliness which is critical for successful installation, followed by a review of fiber identifiers, visual tracers and visual inspection.
In the fourth module we begin by examining the three basic techniques to perform optical loss testing and the need for bi-directional dual wavelength testing. Next, multimode and single mode testing will be reviewed. This will be followed by a review of how and why to perform basic power level testing of transmitters and receivers and how to document the results for future comparison. Next there will be a discussion of testing dissimilar connectors and potential problems with mismatched end polishes on single mode connectors. The final chapter explains the roles of components causing reflections and how the test to measure the amount of reflectance in a span is performed.
In the fifth module we begin with an introduction to troubleshooting typical singlemode and multimode issues. Next, you will learn how to apply the 'identify, locate and resolve' philosophy to your troubleshooting discipline. This is followed by a review of connection faults, span faults and faults at splice locations. Finally, there will be an overview of problems that are not fiber-specific, but still affect the operation of a fibre optic link.
These modules are suitable for anyone who needs to get a basic understanding of fiber optics terminology, basic concepts, hardware and testing practices. As such they are suitable for network engineers and architects, who although may not be directly handling the fiber and testers themselves, need to understand and collaborate with fiber optic field engineers who are carrying out this work.
Module 1: Introduction to Fibre Optic Systems and Physical Plant (60 mins) (5 topics)
- Fiber Types and Fiber Optic Transmission
- Fiber Systems
- Fiber Cables Types & Cable Laying; Connectors
- Fiber Cable Structures
- Testing Fiber Systems
Module 2: OTDR Theory and Operation (60 mins) (8 topics)
- OTDR: Theory Of Operation
- Pulse Insertion
- Impact Of Mode Field Diameter
- Pulse Width; Index Of Refraction
- Comparing Wavelengths
- Testing Reflectance
- Fiber Bends
- Example Test Analysis
Module 3: Fibre Optic Test Equipment & Testing (60 mins) (5 topics)
- Testing Requirements
- Survey Of Test Equipment
- Testing Procedures
- End-To-End Testing
- Reflectance Testing
Module 4: Fibre Optic Testing Techniques (60 mins) (5 topics)
- Standardized Fiber Optic Test Procedures
- Loss Testing
- OTDR Testing
- Fiber To The Home Testing
- Documenting Test Results
Module 5: Troubleshooting a Fibre Optic Link: Troubleshooting Components and Spans (60 mins) (4 topics)
- Key Elements Of Optical Transport Networks
- Construction Of ROADMs
- Type Of ROADM Design
- How ROADMs Can Be Used In OTN Delivery