Fixed Copper Access

2 Day Course
Code PWL037

Book Now - 3 Delivery Methods Available:

Classroom Virtual Classroom Private Group - Virtual Self-Paced Online


This course provides a detailed technical overview of current BT Access loop technology fundamentals. It will form part of the certified training as part of the Silver award. Its purpose will be to provide the technical grounding in copper access loop technology ahead of specialist BT internal training in G.Fast which would follow later in another course.

The course will be presented over two days running typically from 09:30 to 17:00 with breaks for lunch/tea/coffee allowing for about 6.5 hours training per day, 13 hours in total. At the end of the course a certification test will be taken for inclusion of 2 days of credits towards Silver Certification.


When you have completed this course you will be able to:-

  •  Describe in detail the electrical and loss characteristics of typical UK loops
  •  Identify the impact of the variety of different types of noise
  •  Compare ADSL, ADSL2+ and VDSL2 Subscriber Loop Technologies in detail
  •  Size the fiber backhaul for a service
  •  Predict the impact of Noise, Attenuation and loss on customer loop packet loss and throughput
  •  Identify the impact of Crosstalk: NEXT, FEXT and 3rd circuit crosstalk
  •  Describe the likely OAM procedures used to provision and manage loop services


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Architecture of Access Loops (2 hours) (17 topics)

  • Characteristics of copper twisted pairs
  • Electrical requirements for analogue voice
  • Electrical characteristics effects:
  • Wire Gauge, Capacitance, Inductance, Resistance, Leakance (Cross-admittance)
  • Propagation velocity
  • Frequency and distance trade-off
  • Insertion loss vs frequency
  • Noise and crosstalk
  • Quantifying types of noise:
  • Thermal Noise
  • Impulse Noise
  • Crosstalk Noise, NEXT, FEXT and 3rd circuit crosstalk
  • Phase Noise
  • Intermodulation (IM) noise
  • Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
  • Acceptable Noise Envelopes
  • Impact of noise: Shannon's Law

The xDSL technologies (2 Hours) (16 topics)

  • Evolution of xDSL technologies
  • The digital subscriber line
  • Distance vs. loss limitations
  • Distance vs Bit-rate
  • Throughput vs Delay and error rate for Internet services
  • High bit rate DSL: HDSL/HDSL2
  • Line codes and Modulation Schemes:
  • 2B1Q, 3B1O, DMT (Discrete MultiTone)
  • QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
  • TC-PAM (Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation)
  • Handshake procedures
  • HDSL and E1/T1 circuit provision
  • Single pair/symmetric DSL: G.SHDSL
  • Asymmetric DSL: ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+
  • Very high speed DSL: VDSL2

ADSL G.992.1 (1.75 Hours (11 topics)

  • Modes of operation
  • Modems and DSLAM
  • Loop requirements for ADSL
  • Transport protocol functionalities
  • Modulation and line codes
  • Forward error correction with interleaving
  • Upstream and downstream spectrum
  • DC characteristics
  • Voice-band characteristics
  • ADSL band characteristics
  • Splitters and filters

ADSL2 G.992.3 and ADSL2+ G.992.5 (1.75 Hours) (16 topics)

  • ADSL2 functional model
  • Transport protocol specific convergence functions
  • Modulation schemes
  • Line coding
  • Subcarriers
  • Band modifications
  • Control parameters
  • Data plane procedures
  • Management plane procedures
  • Power management
  • ADSL2plus G.992.5 modifications from ADSL2
  • Frequency band differences
  • Initialization
  • Overlapping spectrum operation
  • Extended Framing Parameters
  • ETSI TS 103 388 ADSL2/2plus standard and G992.5 Annex. M

VDSL2 G.993.2 (2 Hours) (11 topics)

  • Evolution of VDSL2 from VDSL G.993.1
  • VDSL2 frequency spectra (17MHz, 30MHz, 35MHz) Frequency Spectra used currently by BT (17MHz)
  • Modulation schemes
  • Limitations of copper
  • FEC and Vectoring to recover errors
  • Seamless Rate Adaptation (SRA) and Bit Swapping
  • Improved Impulse Noise Protection (INP) G.INP / G.998.4 (Physical Layer Retransmission)
  • Vectoring ITU-T standard G.993.5
  • How VDSL2 can be deployed
  • Pair bonding and bonding groups for improved performance
  • Physical Transmission Mode(PMT) Ethernet vs ATM

Fiber BackHaul (0.5 Hours) (3 topics)

  • Typical Fiber Backhaul Construction
  • Typical packet loading calculations
  • What the user experiences: Delay, error rate and Throughput

Case Study: Sizing throughput through backhaul for a service (0.5 Hours)

Operations Administration and Management (OAM) (1.75 Hours) (11 topics)

  • Customer Ethernet Service Delivery
  • IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
  • VLAN operation
  • Single and Double tagging, C-VLANs and S-VLANs
  • Q-in-Q and MAC-in-MAC
  • Aggregation options
  • Building aggregated backhauls
  • Ethernet OAM
  • What it provides
  • The building blocks and standards
  • The OAM Environment

Evaluation and Review + Certification Test (0.75 Hours)

Scheduled Dates

Please select from the dates below to make an enquiry or booking.


Different pricing structures are available including special offers. These include early bird, late availability, multi-place, corporate volume and self-funding rates. Please arrange a discussion with a training advisor to discover your most cost effective option.

Code Location Duration Price Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb

and Virtual Classroom
2 Days $2,250
and Virtual Classroom
2 Days $2,250

and Virtual Classroom
2 Days $2,250
Reston VA
and Virtual Classroom
2 Days $2,250

and Virtual Classroom
2 Days $2,250

and Virtual Classroom
2 Days $2,250

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