LTE, its Charging Architecture and use of Diameter

5 Day Course
Code PWS230

Book Now - 3 Delivery Methods Available:

Classroom Virtual Classroom Private Group - Virtual Self-Paced Online


This specialised five day course starts by introducing delegates to the new core network of LTE (Long Term Evolution) before moving to the concept of a AAA server (Authentication, Authorisation and Accounting) and the traditional RADIUS concept. This is then taken forward to the next generation of AAA server, Diameter, which is described in depth as is the Charging Application used in 3GPP LTE and UMTS networks. The use of Diameter for SMS charging is then discussed. The course then fits the knowledge of Diameter into the LTE Charging Management scenario.


By the end of this program the delegate will be able to:

  • Understand the Diameter Base Protocol
  • Understand the Base Protocol Fields & Options
  • Explain the use of AVPs
  • Understand various Command Codes
  • Explain a message flow using various scenarios
  • Explain the relevance of Diameter in a 4G Network
  • Understand the importance of Streaming Control Transport Protocol (SCTP) as a reliable transport mechanism for Diamter
  • Describe the role of the PCRF and importance of charging rules
  • understand how Diameter works within the IMS environment
  • Explain how errors are handled
  • Explain the role of Diameter on the Cx & Dx interfaces
  • Understand peer coomunications

Target Audience

This course is targeted at staff involved in both the billing platform and core network level. All engineering staff will benefit from this course as the role of Diameter in modern communications networks is paramount to security and revenue generation.


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LTE Core Introduction (4 topics)

  • The 3G LTE & EPC Components
  • Interworking
  • Authentication

Evolved Packet Core (6 topics)

  • Structure
  • Main Components
  • MME (Mobility Management Entity):
  • SAE Gateway or SGW (Serving Gateway)
  • PGW (PDN - Packet Data Network Gateway)
  • HSS (The Home Subscriber Server)

A Short History of Diameter (12 topics)

  • Enter Diameter
  • Twice the Radius
  • Scalability
  • Fault Tolerance
  • Agents
  • Security
  • Reliable Transmission
  • Negotiation
  • Load Balancing
  • Diameter Node Deployment
  • AAA Evolving Network Requirements

Diameter and its Applications (11 topics)

  • What an AAA Server Does
  • RADIUS - Remote Access Dial In User Service
  • The Need for Diameter
  • The Diameter Document Set
  • Diameter Applications; Not Applications but Protocols
  • Overview of Diameter Applications
  • Diameter Mobile IPv4 Application
  • Diameter Network Access Server Application
  • Diameter Extensible Authentication Protocol Application
  • Diameter Credit Control Application
  • Diameter Session Initiation Protocol Application

Transporting Diameter & Diameter Agents (11 topics)

  • Transport - The need for a reliable fast transport protocol
  • SCTP Explained
  • Securing Diameter Messages
  • Connections & Sessions
  • Diameter Agents
  • Relay Agents
  • Proxy Agents
  • Redirect Agents
  • Translation Agents
  • End-to-End Security
  • Authorisation

The Diameter Base Protocol (8 topics)

  • The following topics are covered:
  • Diameter Base Protocol
  • Diameter Header Structure
  • Command Codes
  • Command Flags
  • AVPs
  • AVP Header Structure
  • New AVPs

Diameter Operations and Extensibility (13 topics)

  • Peer Connections
  • Discovery
  • Capability Exchange
  • Disconnection
  • Failover and Fallback
  • Diameter message processing
  • Diameter Error Handling
  • User Sessions
  • Agent Support
  • Auditability
  • Extensibility of the protocol
  • Creating New AVPs
  • Creating New Applications

Diameter Error Handling (7 topics)

  • ResultCode AVP
  • Informational
  • Success
  • Protocol Errors
  • Transient Failures
  • Permanent Errors
  • Error Bit

Diameter Messaging & Application (12 topics)

  • A selection of Diameter Messages explained with examples including:
  • AbortSessionRequest & AbortSessionAnswer
  • AccountingRequest & AccountingAnswer
  • CapabilitiesExchangingRequest & CapabilitiesExchangingAnswer
  • DeviceWatchdogRequest & DeviceWatchdogAnswer
  • DisconnectPeerRequest & DisconnectPeerAnswer
  • ReAuthRequest & ReAuthAnswer
  • SessionTerminationRequest & SessionTerminationAnswer
  • Diameter Routing and Management
  • Diameter routing concepts
  • Diameter message manipulation with DRA
  • Usage reporting and event trigger reporting

IPSec & Its use with Diameter (3 topics)

  • Security Issues
  • IPSec Introduction
  • TLS Usage

Diameter in the IMS (9 topics)

  • Accounting
  • Server Directed Model
  • Protocol Messages
  • Application Document Requirements
  • Fault Resilience
  • Accounting Records
  • Correlation of Accounting Records
  • How Diameter messages apply with IMS

The LTE/UMTS Charging Management Architecture (7 topics)

  • Types of DIAMETER Nodes in IMS/LTE
  • Client (e.g., S4SGSN, MME, NAS), Server (e.g., HSS), Agent, Relay Agent, Proxy Agent (e.g., DRA), Redirect Agent (e.g., SLF), Translation Agent (e.g., MAP, DIAMETER IWF)
  • Offline and Online Charging procedures and call flows
  • Offline Charging CDR content
  • Online Charging AVPs and their use in rating PCC Architecture within EPC/LTE
  • PCC Architecture and Components: PCRF, PCEF, SPR, OCS
  • Charging plans and policies with PCC architecture

Accounting & Billing (5 topics)

  • Accounts & Billing Messages & Usage
  • Server Directed Model, Messages, Application Document Requirements, Fault Resilience
  • Accounting Records, Correlation of Accounting Records
  • Accounting CommandCodes
  • AccountingRequest, AccountingAnswer, Accounting AVPs

Policy and Charging Control (7 topics)

  • Flow Based Charging
  • Policy Control
  • Architecture
  • Functional Entities
  • PCRF - Policy Control and Charging Rules Function
  • PCEF - Policy and Charging Enforcement Function
  • Data Flows and Procedures

Offline & Online Charging Systems & Messaging (16 topics)

  • Diameter Interfaces
  • S6a between MME and HSS, S6d between S4SGSN and HSS
  • S13 between MME and EIR, S13 ' between S4SGSN and EIR
  • S9 between Visited PCRF and Home PCRF
  • Gx between PDNGW and PCRF, Gxx (Gxa, Gxb, Gxc) for policy control
  • Gy between PDNGW and OCS, Gz between PDNGW and OFCS
  • Rx between PCSCF and PCRF
  • Sp between PCRF and SPR
  • Diameter Applications in IMS
  • Rc (IMS)
  • Re (IMS)
  • Rx (IMS)
  • Diameter Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Application (RFC 4740)
  • Cx (IMS), Dx (IMS), Sh (IMS) and Dh (IMS)
  • Rf (IMS)
  • Diameter CreditControl Application (RFC 4006): Ro (IMS)


A basic understanding of Mobile Charging procedures in 2G & 3G systems, knowledge of data networks and IP would also be an advantage.

Scheduled Dates

Please select from the dates below to make an enquiry or booking.


Different pricing structures are available including special offers. These include early bird, late availability, multi-place, corporate volume and self-funding rates. Please arrange a discussion with a training advisor to discover your most cost effective option.

Code Location Duration Price Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

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5 Days $3,595

What Our Customers Say

The training was delivered with a high level of expertise and excellence. Instructor was highly knowledgeable.”

Technical Trainer, Aviat Networks

Overall the course was really good, the trainer really understood the material and was very approachable.”

Customer Training Manager, Aviat Networks

Excellent course, informative and well-paced.”

CSE, Cisco

Course was very well outlined. Topics were great and bridged many gaps.”

System Engineer, Cable & Wireless

An excellent intro to video encoding & MPEG transport streams - I would definitely recommend it.”

Broadcast Engineer, Cisco

Definitely an excellent intro. Left me interested in learning more.”

Broadcast Engineer, Eircom

Excellent training course with real examples and practical classroom demonstrations.”

Transport Designer, Orange

Instructor knowledge and experience was excellent.”

Solutions Engineer, Akamai

Excellent course, very clear and well organised. Course content delivery was very good.”

Assistant Engineer, Dhiraagu

Very informative and appropriate.”

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