Subscriber Access Ethernet Techniques

2 Day Course
Code PDN041

Book Now - 1 Delivery Method Available:

Scheduled Online Onsite


Ethernet has become the interface of preference for both customer and carrier. As next generations networks are deployed it becomes obvious that the access part of carrier services limits the functionality and thus the success of the service. Most digital subscriber loop standards were built on top of ATM in the mid 1990s and now look dated and limited in their service potential.  We need to look towards increasing the amount of fiber in the access in order to deliver higher bandwidths and to migrate interfaces to the now universal Ethernet standard.

The IEEE standardization of versions of Ethernet for subscriber access now recognizes this evolution and needs to be embedded into future plans for evolving Next Generation Access. This course examines the techniques and standards for implementing Ethernet within subscriber access networks using IEEE Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM). These will be considered for delivery over copper loops as well as optical fiber over part or all of the loop. The physical limitation of copper loops will be studied and the principles upon which the standards are based described. The practical performance of services meeting the EFM standards will then be compared with ADSL-2+, VDSL-2 and alternative Passive Optical techniques.

The course will examine the migration to EFM based subscriber access networks and the associated issues. The mechanisms for IP address allocations, delivering quality of service, VLANs and multicast services will be considered. Access bandwidth and QoS will be key driving service parameters and methods of deploying Aggregation within EFM will be examined and its impact upon bandwidth and reliability demonstrated.

Delegates who are interested in getting MEF certified should look at our PDN043  Carrier Ethernet Services Explained course.


When you have completed this course you will be able to:

  • Describe in detail the electrical fundamentals of copper local access loops
  • Identify the passive optical loop options
  • Examine the mechanisms used in Ethernet in first mile over copper and fiber
  • Consider the planning and migration to subscriber access networks using EFM
  • Compare EFM with alternative DSL and PON technologies


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Architecture of Subscriber Access Loops (11 topics)

  • Characteristics of copper twisted Pairs
  • Electrical requirements for analogue voice
  • ISDN loop requirements
  • Frequency and distance trade-off
  • Impact of loading coils
  • Testing loops with TDR techniques
  • Noise and crosstalk
  • Impact of noise: Shannon's Limit
  • Optical loop technologies
  • Single Move vs Multimode
  • Passive optical vs Active Optical Technologies

Evolution of Ethernet for Subscriber Access (14 topics)

  • Evolution of Ethernet LANs
  • Layering and Addressing
  • IEEE Standardization Principles
  • 802.3 Standard structure
  • Impact of 802.1 for management, QoS and VLAN services
  • 802.3 Section 56 Ethernet for subscriber access networks
  • Point to Point (P2P) and Point to Multipoint (P2MP)
  • Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS)
  • Physical Medium Attachment (PMA)
  • Span and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) impact upon bit rates
  • Physical Layer signaling systems
  • Support over Copper and Fiber
  • Protocol implementation conformance statement (PICS)
  • Operations Administration and Management (OAM)

Optical EFM Physical Medium Dependent Systems (9 topics)

  • 100BASE-LX10 (Long Wavelength
  • 100BASE-BX10 (BiDirectional Long Wavelength)
  • 1000BASE-LX10 (Long Wavelength)
  • 1000BASE-BX10 (BiDirectional Long Wavelength)
  • 1000BASE-PX10 (long wavelength passive optical networks)
  • 1000BASE-PX20 (long wavelength passive optical networks)
  • Wavelength and spectral width measurements
  • Transmitter and receiver requirements
  • Performance aspects, Jitter and testing

Copper EFM Physical Coding (16 topics)

  • 10PASS-TS and 2BASE-TL
  • Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS)
  • 100 Mb/s burst data rate
  • Physical Medium Attachment (PMA)
  • Loss and Bit Error Ration Targets
  • Relation of 2BASE-TL and 10PASS-TS to other standards
  • I_O and I_R reference points
  • Physical Medium Entity (PME)
  • Impact of Ethernet Aggregation
  • Codeword Formats and bit ordering
  • Sync Insertion
  • Power Back-off
  • Constellation Encoding
  • Regional Considerations
  • VDSL Based Systems
  • SHDSL Based Systems

EFM and DSL Service Migration (22 topics)

  • EFM and DSL Service Comparison
  • DSL G.922.1 Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
  • ADSL2 G922.3 ADSL2 functional model
  • ADSL 2+ G.992.5
  • VDSL2 G.993.2
  • DSL Forum TR-101 Migration to Ethernet-Based DSL Aggregation
  • IP Address Allocation
  • PPPoE/PPPoA Advantages and disadvantages
  • DHCP
  • RFC1483
  • SNAP
  • OUI
  • Proxy Services
  • Multicasting at layer 2 and Layer 3
  • IGMP
  • Precedence and Quality of Service
  • Demonstrating the impact of Aggregation on IPTV quality and access bandwidth
  • Queuing and queue management
  • TR-126 Triple-play Services Quality of Experience (QoE) Requirements
  • Management and Configuration with TR-069
  • Auto-Configuration and Dynamic Service Provisioning
  • Software/Firmware Image Management


A basic knowledge of IP and telecommunications will be assumed

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