Understanding Wide Area Networking

2 Day Course
Code PDN055

This course has been retired. The SD-WAN Technology and Architecture course may be of interest to anyone wishing to learn about the latest WAN technology.


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PDH Leased Lines (6 topics)

  • PDH data rates,
  • G.704 Framing
  • Frequency justification
  • Multiframe structures
  • Error detection
  • Multiplexing hierarchy E1 to E4

SDH and SONET (14 topics)

  • SDH and SONET comparison and data rates
  • Relating SDH and PDH
  • SDH paths and virtual containers
  • SDH multiplexing
  • Concatenated containers
  • Tributary mapping into virtual containers
  • Alarm indication
  • SONET hierarchy compared with SDH
  • Virtual tributaries
  • SONET section overhead
  • Virtual tributaries
  • SONET section overhead
  • SONET path overhead
  • Mapping between SDH and SONET

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (24 topics)

  • What does an ATM network look like?
  • The basic principles of cell switching
  • Connection identifiers and how they are used
  • ATM connection characteristics
  • Virtual channels and virtual paths, why they are there and when they are used
  • ATM layer Operation And Maintenance (OAM)
  • The ATM Cell header format, at the UNI and NNI
  • The ATM protocol architecture
  • Common layer ATM adaptation protocols (AAL1/AAL2/AAL5)
  • Adaptation convergence sublayer and SAR sublayers
  • The main physical layers used by ATM
  • ATM over SDH and PDH networks
  • ATM service categories, CBR, rt-VBR, nrt-VBR, UBR, ABR, GFR
  • ATM traffic contracts
  • Sizing considerations for ATM networks
  • Traffic policing and traffic shaping
  • Traffic Control Functions
  • The Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (Leaky Bucket Algorithm)
  • Address assignment in ATM networks
  • The components of ATM signalling
  • ATM signalling protocols
  • Comparison with public routeing protocols, SS7 and BISUP
  • The ATM network management architecture
  • Local management in ATM (ILMI)

Frame Relay (13 topics)

  • Frame Relay as a connection oriented packet switched network
  • Frame Relay packet format
  • Extended header formats
  • Frame Relay service features
  • Local Management Interface
  • Consolidated Link Layer Management
  • Standard MIBs for Frame Relay
  • Congestion in Frame Relay networks
  • Connection policing by the network
  • Discard Eligibility and how it is used
  • The use of FECN and BECN control bits
  • Frame Relay interworking with ATM FRF.5 and FRF.8
  • Real time application support in Frame Relay

X.25 Overview (6 topics)

  • Architecture, logical and physical
  • Multiplexing and service in X.25
  • Signalling and addressing
  • Features and facilities of X.25
  • LAN Interconnection via X.25
  • X.25 Hosts

IP packet encapsulation (7 topics)

  • Ethernet encapsulation
  • LLC/SNAP encapsulation
  • Tunnelling IP over Frame Relay or ATM
  • Multiprotocol encapsulation over Frame Relay
  • Multiprotocol encapsulation over ATM
  • IP over leased lines using PPP
  • Packet (IP) over SDH/SONET

Review of IP routeing (9 topics)

  • Configuring the network for routeing
  • Learning about local routers
  • Router configuration
  • Dynamic and static routes
  • Distance Vector and Link State Routeing algorithms
  • Routeing Information Protocol (RIP)
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
  • Route redistribution
  • Wide area routeing


Delegates should have an understanding of IT principles.

What Our Customers Say

The training was delivered with a high level of expertise and excellence. Instructor was highly knowledgeable.”

Technical Trainer, Aviat Networks

Overall the course was really good, the trainer really understood the material and was very approachable.”

Customer Training Manager, Aviat Networks

Excellent course, informative and well-paced.”

CSE, Cisco

Course was very well outlined. Topics were great and bridged many gaps.”

System Engineer, Cable & Wireless

An excellent intro to video encoding & MPEG transport streams - I would definitely recommend it.”

Broadcast Engineer, Cisco

Definitely an excellent intro. Left me interested in learning more.”

Broadcast Engineer, Eircom

Excellent training course with real examples and practical classroom demonstrations.”

Transport Designer, Orange

Instructor knowledge and experience was excellent.”

Solutions Engineer, Akamai

Excellent course, very clear and well organised. Course content delivery was very good.”

Assistant Engineer, Dhiraagu

Very informative and appropriate.”

Network Support Technician, BT

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